Officially leaving Mézières at the end of 1783, Monge became increasingly active in public affairs in Paris. Between 1783 and about 1789 he was an examiner of naval cadets; he served on the committee of weights and measures that established the metric system in 1791; from 1792 to 1793 he was minister for the navy and colonies and had occasion to welcome the young artillery officer who became Emperor Napoleon I; and in 1795 he participated in the founding of the National Institute of France. Although at times during the French Revolution his position was precarious, Monge continued to be influential. When an appeal was made to scientists to assist in producing materials for national defense, he supervised foundry operations and wrote handbooks on steelmaking and cannon manufacture. In 1794–95 he taught at the short-lived École Normale (later reestablished as the École Normale Supérieure), where he was given permission for the first time to lecture on the principles of descriptive geometry he had developed at Mézières. ]]>

(1)

Define

(2)

(3)

where is the so-called reduced mass. The vector displacement from to is

(4)

The distance between the two mutually orbiting bodies is

(5)

Equations (1)-(5) lead to the identities

a graduate student in physics I took a few courses in the Math department out of curiosity.

Born in October 1811, Galois lived just 21 years. His mathematical genius exploded at about age 14 when he obtained a copy of a geometry text written by Legendre. Galois blew through it at a rate others might pace themselves to read a comic book. His appetite for mathematics whetted Galois grew impatient with dim-witted fellow students and slow instructors. E.T. Bell in his classic “Men of Mathematics” uses the marvelous phrase “He was forced to lick up the stale leavings which his genius had rejected”. He was rejected for admission to the prestigious Ecole Polytechnique not once but twice